Table of Contents
Quality of Life
It is a common quality of life in the mission of the Non-Profit Organizations that work for and with people with intellectual disabilities reference to improving the Quality of Life of the people we serve. And also, Our mission, without going any further, is to improve the quality of life of people with Borderline Intelligence or Mild Intellectual Disability and their families, providing the necessary support for developing their life projects. But what exactly do we nasty when we talk about Quality of Life? What is it that we want to improve? What is the basis of our work? And also, The answer to all these questions can be found in the Schlock and Vertigo Quality of Life Model.
What is Quality of Life?
Quality of life is a concept that mentions the set of circumstances that contribute to the well-being of individuals and the realization of their potentialities in social life.
Quality of life comprises both personal and objective factors. Personal factors include each individual’s perception of their physical, psychological, and social well-being. And also, The objective factors, meanwhile, would be material well-being, health, and a harmonious relationship with the physical environment and the community.
The 8 Proportions of Quality of Life
The model proposed by Schlock proposes eight central dimensions that are capable of improving a person’s quality of life. And also, regardless of whether or not they have a disability condition or whether or not they need support to achieve said improvement.
These dimensions are:
Emotional well-being (BE): It refers to feeling calm, safe, without stress, and not being nervous.
Interpersonal relationships (IR): Relate to different people, have friends and get along with people (neighbours, colleagues, etc.).
Social Relations (RS): Having identified friends, family relationships, positive and rewarding social contacts, relationships, and sexuality.
Material well-being (BM): Having enough money to buy what you need and want and having a suitable home and workplace.
Personal Development (PD) refers to the possibility of learning different things, having knowledge, and fulfilling oneself personally.
Self-determination (AU): Decide for himself and have the opportunity to choose the things he wants, how he wants his life to be, his job, his free time, the place where he lives, and the people he is with.
Social inclusion (IS): Go to places in the city or neighbourhoods’ where other people participate in their activities as one more. They feel feeling a member of society, feel integrated, and have the support of other people.
Rights (DE): To be considered the same as the rest of the people, to be treated the same, and to respect their way of being, opinions, desires, privacy, and rights.
Factors of Quality of Life
The factors that affect the quality of life are the following:
Physical well-being: Refers to the health and biological integrity of the person. And also, implies, for example, access to a quality hospital and living in a city with low crime levels. And also, At this point, access to good nutrition also comes into play, which has to do with the available food supply and the information provided to the public so that they can consume products that not only contain their hunger but are also nutritious.
Material well-being refers to the level of income and the possession of goods. An individual, for example, should be able to earn at least what is necessary to cover his basic needs.
Social welfare: It is everything related to interaction with other people. We refer, for example, to enjoying a solid group of friends and a healthy family environment. This also includes community activities where integration between members of a neighbourhood or a social group is facilitated.
Emotional well-being: This is the psychological aspect related to developing high and mental stability.
Personal development: It means that the person feels that he is fulfilling his aspirations, feeling fulfilled. This implies that the individual can carry out, for example, the studies that he wishes (access to education) and can perform in the labour field that is of the most significant interest to him.
Human Development Index of Quality of Life
One way to measure the quality of life can be the Human Development Index (HDI). And also, It is an indicator born from the hand of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) that measures. In each country’s development level is based on variables such as life expectancy, education or per capita income. And also, The indicator has been carried out since 1990 by the UN, replacing previous growth analyses, which did not emphasize the human aspect and its development and focus. And also, A primarily on the point of view of economic well-being. In other words, only the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) was previously observed.
The Quality-of-Life Model
The most widespread model regarding the quality of life is the one proposed by Robert schlocky and Miguel Ángel Verdugo in 2003. This model is characterized by the following:
- Be multidimensional, that is, involve several aspects
- be universal
- Personal and environmental factors are influencing them.
- Include objective and subjective components.
- Improve with self-determination, resources and a personal and individualized life project.
- In addition, it reflects the living conditions desired by the person about eight dimensions or fundamental needs, and they are:
Interactions: being with different people and having social networks
Relationships: having friends and family with whom to have satisfying relationships
Education: access and have an adequate education
Personal competence: having knowledge or tools that allow autonomy in activities of daily living
Performance: being productive and thriving in the activities that are carried out, emotional well-being
Self-concept: a set of ideas that we believe define us.
Absence of stress: through a safe, stable, and predictable environment,
Health: a correct diet, lack of diseases, etc.
Activities of daily living: personal care (hygiene, continence), sexuality, and mobility (transfer and locomotion).
Health care: with effective services for all
Leisure: being able to carry out recreational activities
Autonomy / personal control: decide on their own life independently.
Goals and values: being able to direct actions towards different goals, expectations, and desires.
Choices: being able to have different options from which to choose independently according to your preferences
Economic status: have enough income to cover the needs
Housing: access to housing
Integration and participation in the community: being able to access all places and community groups
Community roles being an active and valued person in the community activities in which one participates.
Human rights respect your human rights without discrimination.
Legal rights have the same rights and access to legacy processes as other people.
The Quality of Life of a person refers to the set of conditions that contribute to their personal and social well-being. And also, Therefore, improving and maintaining the quality of life is essential for any person’s complete and satisfactory development. And also, The concept of Excellence Life emerge in the literature on intellectual disability in the 1980s, marking a historical milestone in how professional interventions and social policies carry out.